5.3 The Y/EI affection has a limited scope. The most obvious use is in the second person singular of verbs whose base contains the sound a -- like canaf (sing), caraf (love). Under the influence of the -y in the ending, the a becomes e. The same change occurs in the second person plural, because the suffix was originally not -wch, but -ych. So the present tense of caraf (which is the model verb given in most grammars -- GMW 114ff) will be
5.4 This affection can be illustrated by the traditional vowel-diagram. (If you have not used this before, all that you need to know at this point is that it shows the conventional positions of the vowels in the mouth. The front of the mouth is always on the left, the back of the mouth on the right. In accordance with this diagram, vowels can be described in various ways as "high", "middle", "low", "front", "back", "central".)
5.5 Centering affects final y, w, and aw. If one of these occurs in the last syllable, then a suffixed form of the word will move the vowel to a more central position in the mouth:
|high y||becomes||middle y|
Practise reciting the conjugation of these verbs: edrychaf, dygaf, cysgaf, holaf.
The same principle applies in other parts of speech. Compare marchawg (horseman) with marchoges (horsewoman)
5.6 The I affection produces these changes:
5.7 One of the old (Brythonic) third person singular endings was -it. After the general loss of final syllables, many verbs which had this ending now show only the affection that was produced by it. So, *archit has become eirch. The present tense of archaf starts:
5.8 Now look at Appendix E. This covers in more detail what you want to know about the third person singular, which is the only major difficulty in the present tense. It will give you most of the the third person forms you will meet in this book.
All text copyright © 1996 by Gareth Morgan. Online layout copyright © 2001 by Daniel Morgan.