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Appendix E: Present Tense Third Person Singular

E.1  The standard paradigm for the present tense is of caraf, caru ('love'):
cerycerwch (*cerywch)
The second person singular and plural regularly has Y-affection, so that /a/ in the base will become /e/. Examples might be erchy (from archaf), cenwch (from canaf).

E.2  The third person singular car represents original *carat. Other examples of this formation include can, tal, gad (these forms would be circumflexed in Modern Welsh ) and some verbs with /e/ or /y/, such as cymer, adfer, mynn, gofyn, dyly. But the majority of third person singulars come from an original *-it ending (whether this was an original i-stem, or by analogy). Therefore they show I-affection. Examples:
cynneilcynhaliafsupport(note i-stem)
etteilattaliafrestrain(note i-stem)
gwyl (*gweil)gwelafsee
gwerendeugwarandaf (*gwarandawaf)listen

E.3  The "centering" vowel-change means that some verbs will reveal their base vowels only in the third singular. The suffixed forms will be "centered".
dwgbutdygaf, dygy, . . .take, lead
cwsgcysgaf, cysgy, . . . sleep
meddwlmeddyliaf, meddyly, . . . think
hawlholaf, holy, . . . claim

E.4  Some "denominative" verbs (verbs made from nouns or adjectives) use a suffix -ha. (The verbal noun is regularly -hau. The /h/ is not regularly notated, but sometimes shows in unvoicing the previous consonant. [Note: This is the phenomenon known as "provection".] This suffix used to carry the stress, but this too is sporadic in MlW.) The third singular has a zero marker:
digrif(h)aentertains(makes digrif 'pleasant')
bwytaeats(uses bwyd 'food')
tycyaavails(has twg 'success')
gwreicamarries(gets a gwreig 'wife')
cadarnhastrengthens(makes cadarn 'strong')
parhalasts, continues

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All text copyright © 1996 by Gareth Morgan. Online layout copyright © 2001 by Daniel Morgan.