E.2 The third person singular car represents original *carat. Other examples of this formation include can, tal, gad (these forms would be circumflexed in Modern Welsh ) and some verbs with /e/ or /y/, such as cymer, adfer, mynn, gofyn, dyly. But the majority of third person singulars come from an original *-it ending (whether this was an original i-stem, or by analogy). Therefore they show I-affection. Examples:
E.3 The "centering" vowel-change means that some verbs will reveal their base vowels only in the third singular. The suffixed forms will be "centered".
|dwg||but||dygaf, dygy, . . .||take, lead|
|cwsg||cysgaf, cysgy, . . .||sleep|
|meddwl||meddyliaf, meddyly, . . .||think|
|hawl||holaf, holy, . . .||claim|
E.4 Some "denominative" verbs (verbs made from nouns or adjectives) use a suffix -ha. (The verbal noun is regularly -hau. The /h/ is not regularly notated, but sometimes shows in unvoicing the previous consonant. [Note: This is the phenomenon known as "provection".] This suffix used to carry the stress, but this too is sporadic in MlW.) The third singular has a zero marker:
|digrif(h)a||entertains||(makes digrif 'pleasant')|
|bwyta||eats||(uses bwyd 'food')|
|tycya||avails||(has twg 'success')|
|gwreica||marries||(gets a gwreig 'wife')|
|cadarnha||strengthens||(makes cadarn 'strong')|
All text copyright © 1996 by Gareth Morgan. Online layout copyright © 2001 by Daniel Morgan.