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12  Myned -- 'To Go'

12.1  There is a close similarity between gwneuthur and myned, except for the verbal noun, which obviously is "suppletive" (comes from a different system). Here are the indicative forms in Pwyll and Branwen. (GMW 132ff)
Preterite----aeth:----aethont / aethant
The verb comes from the base *ag, as in Latin ago -- 'to drive, move forcefully'.


  1. A mifi a af i'th le di.
  2. A mifi a af rhag y brenin.
  3. Ac ar hynny y marchawg a aeth at Bwyll.
  4. Ac ar hynny i ymolchi ydd aethant.
  5. Pan fu amser cymryd hun, i gyscu ydd aethant.
  6. A'i wreig a aeth at y brenin.
  7. Ygydag ydd aethant yn y gwely, ymchwelud ei wyneb at yr erchwyn.
  8. Amser oedd i fyned i gyscu, ac i gysgu ydd aethant, ef a'r frenhines.
  9. A daw yn ei fryd ac yn ei feddwl fyned i hela.
  10. Nid a oddyno heb un o'r deupeth . . . (He does not go from there without one of two things . . .)
  11. Ni a awn i benn yr orsedd. (the top of the hill)
  1. ygydag as a preposition would mean 'with'; here, as a conjunction, it means 'as soon as'. Take care of gwely: here it is the noun 'bed', but it can also be the verb 'you see'.
  2. 'Going to hunting comes in his mind and in his thought' -- He has/gets the idea of . . . .
12.3  Sentence 10 in the last section produces yet another meaning of the letter a. We can make a list:
  1. 'And', 'with'. (These are originally the same word.) A'i wreig can mean and his wife or with his wife.
  2. The direct preverbal particle = the relative pronoun.
  3. The vocative: a unben! -- Lord!'
  4. 'Goes': nid a oddyno -- he does not go from there.
And we can add yet another use, as a particle starting a question:
  1. A ddywedy di i mi dim o'th negesseu? -- Will you tell me anything of your errands?
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All text copyright © 1996 by Gareth Morgan. Online layout copyright © 2001 by Daniel Morgan.