The format for documenting electronic sources of information, like the sources themselves, is still
being developed. The following forms are taken from the Publication Manual of the
APA, 4th ed. (1994), and recent standards proposed by T. Land (1996) to extend APA style
for referencing online documents. In general, all electronic sources in APA style have five elements:
author, date, title, document type, and publication information.
CD-ROMS and Other Portable Databases
Provide the author, date, and title information as you would for a print source. Identify the medium
(such as CD-ROM), electronic tape, cartridge tape) in brackets
after the title. At the end of the entry, include the location and name of the product.
Journal Abstract on CD-ROM
Steinhausen, H. D., & Vollrath, M. (1993).
The self-image of adolescent patterns with
eating disorders [CD-ROM]. International
Journal of Eating Disorders, 13(2), 221-227.
Abstract from: Silverplatter File: PsycLIT
Information Published Only on CD-ROM
Solution Software. (1996). Material Safety
Datasheets [CD-ROM]. Enterprise, FL:
Corel Corporation, Ltd. (1996). Quattro Pro (Ver. 6.02 for Windows)
[Computer Software]. (1996). Dublin, Ireland:
For a source that is revised regularly, add, if available, the source's day and month of publication or
the day and month it was last modified as part of the date entry, and include in parentheses at the end of the citation the date you visited the source
in the form (visited year, month, day). The publication information for any standard
World Wide Web source is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The proposed, but not yet
accepted, APA style (Land, 1996) begins the publication element of all World Wide Web sites with
the capital letters "URL" followed by a space and the full URL path underlined. Do not end a URL
with a period or any other punctuation. Begin a URL on a new line rather than breaking it between
Journal Published Only Online
Harnack, A., & Kleppinger, G. (1996).
Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting
electronic sources on the Internet [On-line
serial]. Kairos, 1(2). URL
Document Available through the World Wide Web
Land, T. (1996, March 31). Web extension
to American Psychological Association style
(WEAPAS) [WWW Document] (Rev. 1.2.4). URL
(visited 1996, September 21).
Document Retrieved from a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Archive
Curtis, P. (1992). Mudding: Social phenomena
in text-based virtual realities [FTP archive]. Available FTP:
## APA: Electronic Sources ##
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