We introduce a dust model for cosmological simulations implemented in the moving-mesh code AREPO and present a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations to study dust formation within galactic haloes. Our model accounts for the stellar production of dust, accretion of gas-phase metals onto existing grains, destruction of dust through local supernova activity, and dust driven by winds from star-forming regions. We find that accurate stellar and active galactic nuclei feedback is needed to reproduce the observed dust-metallicity relation and that dust growth largely dominates dust destruction. Our simulations predict a dust content of the interstellar medium which is consistent with observed scaling relations at z = 0, including scalings between dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity, dust mass and gas mass, dust-to-gas ratio and stellar mass, and dust-to-stellar mass ratio and gas fraction. We find that roughly two-thirds of dust at z = 0 originated from Type II supernovae, with the contribution from asymptotic giant branch stars below 20 per cent for z > 5. While our suite of Milky Way-sized galaxies forms dust in good agreement with a number of key observables, it predicts a high dust-to-metal ratio in the circumgalactic medium, which motivates a more realistic treatment of thermal sputtering of grains and dust cooling channels.
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Time evolution of dust and gas-phase metal densities alongside dust-to-metal ratio from z=5 to z=0 in physical units.
Face-on and edge-on projections of gas, gas-phase metal, and dust densities and dust-to-metal ratio at z=2, 1, and 0.
Predicted gas mass versus dust mass scaling for all Aquarius halos (colored circles), compared to observations (gray squares).
Dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus gas fraction for the Aquarius halos (colored circles) as compared with observations (gray squares).