Integers and Sequence (Solution)
by Tanya Khovanova
The first step is clear  you need to resolve clues for integers. Each clue is explained below, where the A numbers represent the relevant sequence numbers from the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences
(oeis.org). After that you get several sets of integers:
 12 42 18 40 30 24 20
 2 1 132 42 429 14
 7 9 1 8 5 3 10 4
 92 117 70 145 35 1 22 12 5
 137 1 37 13 107 1013 113
 30 12 2 42 6
 70 4030 836 7192
The title hints that these might be sequences. You do not need all the number to recognize the sequence. Some sequences are difficult to find in the OEIS, but you can notice that every sequence has a name, also the names of some sequences appear in clues, and the number of letters in the name in the sequence is one plus the number of clues.
The sequences are given in the alphabetical order of their names (abundant, Catalan, deficient, pentagonal, primeval, pronic, weird). This creates an AHA moment, helps identify the sequences, and also means that the required order needs to be figured out. You can order sequences by how they mention each other. The first sequence is not mentioned.
You can also notice that the numbers appear in order from the start of the sequence and one number is missing:
 G: PentaGonal: 1, 5, 12, 22, 35, ?, 70, 92, 117, 145
 R: PRimeval: 1, ?, 13, 37, 107, 113, 137, 1013
 A: AbundAnt: 12, 18, 20, 24, 30, ?, 40, 42
 N: ProNic: 2, 6, 12, ?, 30, 42
 T: CaTalan: 1, 2, ?, 14, 42, 132, 429
 E: DEficient: 1, ?, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10
 R: WeiRd: 70, 836, 4030, ?, 7192
The index of the missing number gives the index of the letter in the sequence name. The answer is GRANTER.
(the largest integer n such that there exists a Platonic solid with n vertices, a Platonic solid with n edges, and a Platonic solid with n faces)

12 (a cube has 12 edges, a dodecahedron has 12 faces, an icosahedron has 12 vertices)

(the largest twodigit tetrahedral number)/(the smallest value the second smallest angle of a convex hexagon with all integer degrees can have)

84 (A000292) /2 (degrees: 179 + 179 + 179 + 179 + 2 + 2) = 42

(the number of positive integers less than 2013 that are divisible by 100, but not divisible by 70)

18 ((Floor[2013/100]  Floor[2013/700]))

(the number of twodigit numbers that produce a square when summed up with their reverse)*(the smallest number of weighings on a balance scale that guarantees to find the only fake coin out of 100 identical coins, where the fake coin is lighter than other coins)

8 (the squares should be divisible by 11, so the numbers are 29, 38, 47, 56, 65, 74, 83, 92) * 5 (the number of coins are bounded by powers of 3. 100 is between the fourth and fifth power)= 40

(the only two digit number n such that 2^{n} ends with n)  (the second smallest, and conjectured to be the largest, triangular number such that its square is also triangular)

36 (A064541)  6 (A000217) = 30

(the smallest nontrivial compositorial number that is also a factorial)

24 (A036691)

(the sum of the smallest three positive pronic numbers)

20 (A002378)

(the digit you get when you sum up the digits of 2013^{2013} repeatedly until you get a single digit)(the greatest common factor of the indices of the Fibonacci numbers divisible by 13)

9 (it is the remainder on division by 9, but it can't be 0)  7 (the indices of the Fibonacci number divisible by n are multiples of the first index the Fibonacci is divisible by n) = 2

(the largest common divisor of numbers of the form p^{2}1 for primes p greater than three) (the largest sum of digits that can appear on a 12hour digital clock starting from 1:00 up to 12:59)

24 (one of the three numbers p, p1, and p+1 is divisible by 2; both numbers p1 and p+1 are divisible by 2 and one of them by 4)  23 (9:59) = 1

(the largest Fibonacci number, such that it and all positive Fibonacci numbers less than it are deficient) + (the difference between the sum of all even numbers up to 100 and the sum of all odd numbers up to 100)  (the first digit of a fourdigit square that has the first two digits the same and the last two digits the same)

89 (A005100 and A074317) + 50 (we can pair numbers up so each even is one more than the corresponding odd)  7 (7744 = 88^{2}) = 132

(the smallest composite Jacobsthal number) * (the only digit needed to express the number of diagonals of a convex hendecagon)/(the smallest prime divisor of 13^{2013} + 1)

21 (Jacobsthal numbers: 0, 1, 1, 3, 5, 11, 21, 43, 85, 171, 341, sequence A001045. The smallest composite is 21) * 4 (hendecagon is 11gon. The number of diagonals of an ngon is n*(n3)/2. In this case it is 44)/2 (the sum is even) = 42

(the smallest integer the fate of whose aliquot sequence is unknown) + (the largest amount of money in cents you can have in American coins without having change for 2 dollars)  (the repeated number in the aliquot cycle of 95) * (the secondsmallest integer n such that the Russian word for n has n letters)

276 (http://mathworld.wolfram.com/AliquotSequence.html) + 219 (7 quarters, 4 dimes, 4 pennies)  6 (95, 25, 6, 6, ...) * 11 = 429

(the smallest positive even integer that's not a totient)

14 (A005277)

(the number of letters in the last name of a famous Russian writer, whose year of birth many Russians use to help them memorize the digits of e)

7 (Tolstoy was born in 1828)

(the number of pluses you need to insert in a row of 20 fives so that the sum is 1000)

9 (the only way to do this is 555 + 55 + 55 + 55 + 55 + 55 + 55 + 55 + 55 + 5)

(the number of positive integers less than 2013 such that not all their digits are distinct) (the number of fourdigit numbers with only odd digits)  (the largest Fibonacci square)

770 (2012  9 (one digit numbers)  81 (twodigit numbers with distinct integers  9*9*8 (three digit numbers with distinct integers)  9*8*7 (fourdigit numbers starting with 1 with all distinct integers (numbers between 2000 and 2013 can't have all distinct integers)  625 (5^{4})  144 = 1

(the number of positive integers n for which the sum of the n smallest positive integers evenly divides 18n)

8 (n(n+1)/2 divides 18n, or (n+1) divides 36, which works for 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 11, 17, 35)

(the number of trailing zeroes of 2013!)  (the number of sets in the game of Set such that every feature is different on all three cards) (an average speed in miles per hour of a person who drives somewhere with a speed of 420 miles per hour, then drives back using the same route with a speed of 210 miles per hour)

501 (Floor[2013/5] + Floor[2013/25] + Floor[2013/125] + Floor[2013/625])  216 (81 ways to choose the first card, 16 ways the second card, then the third card is chosen uniquely; divide this by 6 representing permutations)  280 (2 420 210/(420 + 210)) = 5

(the smallest fortunate triangular number)

3 (A005235)

(the smallest weird number)/(the only prime one less than a cube)

70 (A006037) /7 (a^{3}1 is divisible by a1, so it can be prime only for a = 2) = 10

(the third most probable product of the numbers showing when two standard sixsided dice are rolled)

4 (12 happens 4 times: 3*4,4*3,2*6,6*2, 6 happens 4 times: 1*6,6*1,2*3,3*2, 4 happens 3 times: 1*4, 4*1, and 2*2)

(the largest integer number of dollars you can't pay if you have an unlimited supply of 9dollar bills and 13dollar bills)  (the positive difference between the two prime numbers that do not share a unit digit with any other prime number)

95 (the formula for coprime m and n is mn m n)  3 (5 and 2 are the only prime numbers that do not share a unit digit with other prime numbers) = 92

(the largest threedigit primeval number)  (the largest number of Set cards without a set)

137 (A072857)  20 = 117

(the number conjectured to be the secondlargest number such that two to its power has no zeroes)  (the largest number whose cube has at most two distinct digits and no zeroes)

81 (A007377)  11 (A030292: 11^{3} is 1331) = 70

(the number of 5digit palindromic integers in base 5) + (the only positive integer that is five times the sum of its digits)

100 (4*5*5, it is uniquely defined by the first three digits) + 45 = 145

(the only Fibonacci number that is a double of a prime) + (the only prime p such that p! has p digits)  (the only fixed point of lookandsay operation)

34 (the source http://primes.utm.edu/curios/page.php/17.html; I reworded it to make it less googlable, I do not know the proof) + 23  22 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lookandsay_sequence, two twos) = 35

(the only number whose concatenation with itself is prime)

1

(the only positive integer that that differs by 1 from a square and a nonsquare cube)  (the largest number such that its divisors are each 1 less than a prime)

26 (square 25, and cube 27)  4 (it has to be a power of two, otherwise the odd factor produce composite numbers when 1 is added. It can't be 8 or bigger, because 8+1 is composite) = 22

(the smallest admirable number)

12 (A111592)

(the smallest evil untouchable number)

5 (A005114)

(the alphanumeric value of MANIC SAGES) + (the sum of all threedigit numbers you can get by permuting digits 1, 2, and 3) + (the number of twodigit integers divisible by 9)  (the number of rectangles whose sides are composed of edges of squares of a chess board)

91 + 1332 (12*111) + 10  1296 = 137

(the integer whose standard Roman numeral representation is alphabetically later than all others)  (the number you get if you divide a three digit number with identical digits by the sum of the digits)

38 (XXXVIII)  37 (111/3) = 1

(the largest even integer that is not a sum of two abundant numbers)  (the digit in the first position where e and pi have the same digit)

46 (proof)  9 = 37

(the number formed by the last two digits of the sum: 1! + 2! + 3! + 4! + . . . + 2013!)

13 (starting with 10!, factorials end with two zeros, hence we need only sum up the first 9 terms)

(the only positive integer such that if you sum the digits and the squares of the digits, you get the original number back) + (the largest prime factor of the smallest Carmichael number)

90 + 17 (A002997: 561 = 3*11*17) = 107

(the smallest multidigit hyperperfect number such that more than half of its digits are the same)  (the sum of digits that cannot be the last digits of squares)*(the largest base n in which 8n is not written like 80)*(the smallest positive integer that leaves a remainder of 2 when divided by 3, 4, and 5)

1333 (A034897)  20 (2+3+7+8) * 8 * 2 = 1013

(the smallest threedigit brilliant number)(the first decimal digit of the number that in hexadecimal gives the house number of Sherlock Holmes)

121 (A078972)  8 (221B is converted to 8731) = 113

(the number of evil minutes in an hour)

30 (A001969)

(the number of fingers on ten hands)  (the smallest number such that its square has a digit repeated three times)

50  38 (1444) = 12

(the number of ways you can rearrange letters of MANIC)/(the number of ways you can rearrange letters of SAGES)

120/60 = 2

(the only multidigit Catalan number with digits in strictly decreasing order)

42 (A000108)

(the smallest perfect number)

6 (A000396)

(the largest product of positive integers that sum up to 10) + (the smallest perimeter of a rectangle with integral sides of area 120)  (the day of the month of the second Thursday in a January that has exactly 4 Mondays and 4 Fridays)

36 (it should use as many threes as possible) + 44 (the rectangle should be closest to a square, so 10 by 12)  10 (January must start on a Tuesday) = 70

(the secondlargest number with all distinct digits, such that all the words in its American English representation start with the same letter) + (the largest squarefree composite number that contains each of the digits 1, 2, 3, 4 exactly once in its prime factorization) + (the number of ways you can flip a coin 10 times so that the number of heads is the same as the number of tails) + (the smallest positive integer such that 2 to its power contains 2013 as a substring) + (the sum of five prime numbers formed from the digits 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 where each digit is used exactly once) + (the number of days in a year where the day of the month is odious) + (the sum of the digits each of which spelled out has an alphanumeric value equal to the meaning of life, the universe, and everything)*(the sum of all prime numbers p such that p+20 and p + 40 are also prime) + (the first digit of the total number of legal moves of the Black king in chess)

2013 (3012 is the largest) + 1263 (3*421) + 252 (10 choose 5) + 163 + 106 (8 and 9 can't be by themselves: 2+3+5+7+89) + 187 (five months has 15 odious days, and 7 months 16, so 15*12+7) + 14 (NINE  14+9+14+5 = 42, FIVE 6+9+22+5=42)*3 (all these number has different remainders mod 3, so the only possibility for p is 3) + 4 = 2013 + 1263 + 252 + 163 + 106 + 187 + 14*3 + 4 (422: 36 center cells have 8 moves + 24 border cells have 5 moves plus 4 corner cells have 3 moves plus castling) = 4030

(the secondlargest threeletter palindrome in Roman numerals)/((the smallest composite number not divisible by any of its digits)/(the last digit of 2013^{2013})  (the digit in position 2013 of the string formed by concatenation of all integers into one stream: 123456789101112...))  (the number of days in a year such that the month and the day of the month are simultaneously composite)

1900 (A078715: MCM, the largest is MMM)/(27/3 (the last digit cycles through 3, 9, 7, 1)  7 (9 onedigit numbers + 90 2digit numbers + 608 3digit numbers produce 2013 digits, so it is the last digit of 707)  114 (6 composite months with 19 days each) = 836

(the secondsmallest cube with only prime digits)*(the smallest perimeter of a Pythagorean triangle)/(the last digit to appear in the units place of a Fibonacci number) + (the greatest common divisor of the sums in degrees of the interior angles of convex polygons with an even number of sides) + (the number of subsets that you can form from the set {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} that do not contain two consecutive numbers)  (the only common digit of 2013 base 8 and base 9)

3375 (A195374) * 12 (3+4+5)/6 + 360 ( n polygon  sum of angles (n2)180) + 89 (you can see that recursively the sequence follows the Fibonacci rule. We need to check the start. For 1, the answer is 2, for 2, the answer is 3, so it is 11th Fibonacci number)  7 (it is 3735 and 2676) = 7192
