## 12.810 (Spring): Dynamics of the Atmosphere

#### Class description

This class discusses the dynamics of the atmosphere, with emphasis on the large scale. Topics include internal gravity waves in the atmosphere; potential vorticity conservation and Rossby waves; baroclinic instability and extratropical storms; the tropical Hadley and Walker circulations and equatorial waves; the general circulation, annular modes, and the response to climate change. (Pre-req: 12:800 or instructor's permission)

#### Details

• Meets in 54-824 on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 10:30am-12pm• Office hour in 54-1712 on Fridays 11am-12pm

• Download the class syllabus

#### Textbooks

1) An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th edition (Holton and Hakim)2) Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics (Vallis)

#### Projects

Class presentations will be in class on May 8th, 10th, and 15th.Project reports are due on May 17th

#### Problem sets

Problem set 1 (pdf) (due March 1st)Problem set 2 (pdf) (due March 15th) lee_wave_810.m

Problem set 3 (pdf) (due April 3rd)

Problem set 4 (pdf) (due April 19th)

Problem set 5 (pdf) (due May 3rd)

#### Lecture slides and additional reading

1. Introduction (pdf)

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*ERA-40 reanalysis:*Uppala et al, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 131, 2961-3012, 2005 2. Hadley circulation (pdf)

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*Theory:*Vallis sections 11.2-11.4 (1st edition) and 14.2-14.4 (2nd edition); Held and Hou, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 515-533, 1980

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*Superrotation:*Caballero and Huber, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L11701, 2010 3. Internal gravity waves (pdf)

• Introductory notes for the Boussinesq case (pdf)

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*Internal gravity waves and mountain waves:*Holton sections 5.4 and 9.4

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*Log-pressure coordinates:*Vallis section 2.6.3; Holton section 7.4.1 4. Large-scale rotating and stratified dynamics (pdf)

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*Shallow water dynamics:*Holton 4.5; Vallis 3.1

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*Quasigeostrophy:*Holton chapter 6; Vallis 5.4

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*Potential vorticity song:*lyrics 5. Vertical motion and the omega equation (pdf)

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*Variants of the omega equation:*Holton chapter 6 6. Vertically propagating and stationary Rossby waves (pdf)

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*Stationary waves:*overview chapter by Isaac Held

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*Ray tracing:*Vallis 14.2 (1st ed.) or 16.2 (2nd ed.) 7. E-P fluxes and instability in midlatitudes (pdf)

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*E-P fluxes: QG theory and observations*Edmon et al, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1980

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*Models of baroclinic instability:*Holton chapter 7 and Vallis chapter 6 (1st ed.) or 9 (2nd ed.) 8. Available potential energy of the atmosphere (pdf)

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*Dry available potential energy:*Lorenz, Tellus, 2, 1955; Vallis section 3.10 (1st ed.) or 3.11 (2nd ed.)

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*Energetics under climate change:*O'Gorman, PNAS, 107, 2010 9. General circulation (pdf)

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*Eddy forcing of the mean circulation and the transformed Eulerian mean:*Holton 10.2 and 10.3

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*Effect of eddies on the Hadley cells:*Sections 3.2 & 3.4 of Schneider et al, Rev. Geophysics, 48, RG3001, 2010

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*Stratospheric circulation and downward control:*Holton 12.2