Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting
ACM Multimedia and Security Workshop, New York, NY, 2005
When creating a digital composite of, for example, two people standing side-by-side, it is often difficult to match the lighting conditions from the individual photographs. Lighting inconsistencies can therefore be a useful tool for revealing traces of digital tampering. Borrowing and extending tools from the field of computer vision, we describe how the direction of a point light source can be estimated from only a single image. We show the efficacy of this approach in real-world settings.