Exposing Digital Forgeries in Complex Lighting Environments
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 2007
The availability of sophisticated digital imaging technology has given rise to digital forgeries that are increasing in sophistication and frequency. We describe a technique for exposing such fakes by detecting inconsistencies in lighting. We show how to approximate complex lighting environments with a low-dimensional model and how to estimate the model parameters from a single image. Inconsistencies in the lighting model are then used as evidence of tampering.