Arabic is a Semitic language, along with Hebrew and several languages of the ancient Middle East, such as Assyrian and Aramaic, and also many languages of present-day Ethiopia.
The Semitic languages are part of a still larger family of languages known as Afro-Asiatic, which, as the name denotes, are spoken in Africa and Asia (although no further east than the Arabian penninsula). Besides Semitic, other languages in Afro-Asiatic include Ancient Egyptian (heiroglyphics), the Berber languages of North Africa, Hausa, one of the major languages of Nigeria, and the Cushitic languages, including Somali, the language of Somalia.
I also have a more detailed lineage of Arabic and other Afro-Asiatic languages
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