athena% tellme combo
tellme root, for the root password, and
To run a program, simply type the name of the program. For example,
To run a program in the background, type the name of the program followed by
&. For example,
Running a program in the background allows you to continue to use your prompt after the program launches. If you do not use the
athena% mozilla &
&, then you cannot type any more commands until you close the program you launched.
If you are running a text based program that uses the entire terminal
window, such as
owl, or asks for user input, such as
however, you should not use
To list the contents of a directory (including its subdirectories), you can use the
athena% cd directoryname
Keep in mind that you can move as far down the directory structure as you want with one
athena% cd 6.034-psets
ps0 ps1 ps2 ps3 ps4 ps5
cd("change directory") command. For example, if you wanted to access a directory called "ps0" in your 6.034-psets directory, you can type
from your home directory. If you now wanted to go back to your 6.034-psets directory, you can type
athena% cd 6.034-psets/ps0
to move up one level in the directory structure. You can also type
athena% cd ..
cdto return to your home directory.
To make a new directory in the current directory, use
When you hit tab at the end, if you have no other files whose names begin with "stupid", the shell will complete it:
athena% emacs stupid[TAB]
If there are two or more valid completions, the shell will list them for you.
athena% emacs stupidlylongfilename
For example, if you wanted to move a file named "foo" from your Public directory to your current directory, you can type
athena% mv old/path/to/file new/path
(The dot at the end is notation for the current directory.)
athena% mv Public/foo .
To rename a file, just give the new name, e.g.:
To copy a file, type
athena% mv foo bar
This will mark that file for deletion and make it a hidden file. To delete a directory and its contents, use
athena% delete filename
delete -r. You should be aware that the system will automatically remove marked files periodically. You can list the files that have been marked by using the command
lsdel. To recover a marked file, you can
If you're familiar with Unix, you may know about the
athena% undelete filename
rmcommand, which also works, but doesn't let you use
delete, then you should first try
undelete. If your file can't be undeleted, you may still have a backup. Athena makes a nightly backup copy of your entire home directory , so if you accidentally remove a file, you still have some time to recover it. The copy, as of 3AM, is kept in "OldFiles" in your home directory. You can recover your file by copying it back.
If OldFiles has already been updated, you have one last hope: the AFS administrators have tape backups that they should be able to retrieve for you. Contact email@example.com with the full pathname of the file and the approximate dates that it existed, and they'll get in touch with the AFS administrators.